The artist's work is concerned with the exploration of the
concept of art as a (semi-) formal system and the practical and theoretical
implications of using a formal machine (in the form of a computer)
to develop and produce art.
It is believed that the need to predefine all operations
a computer is ever expected to perform during the execution of a
programme -or to predefine how the computer can subsequently generate
its own reactions -makes the computer an ideal medium for ontological/epistemological
The ability to simulate sytems that do not physically exist
-makes the computer an ideal medium for the exploration of imaginary
Computer programming does not involve the conceptualisation
of material -but the materiallation of concept -which is the traditional
task of art.
Because the post-Ruskin romantic cultural literati generally
have an intense fear, and lack of understanding of, technical issues
-and have therefore mistakenly assumed that the computer is a technical
system instead of primarily being a linguistic system -the role of the
computer has been dangerously misunderstood in contemporary society.
- Born 16.5.45 Hillingdon, England.
- Studied at Loughborough, Exeter and Brighton
Colleges of Art specializing in sculpture (Exeter, 1964/67) and
printmaking (Brighton, 1968).
- Part-time lecturer at art colleges in Brighton
(3-d studies, 1968) and Sunderland (printmaking, 1970/71).
- Produced first computer generated graphic
image with the help of a friendly mathematician in 1967 while studying
at Exeter College of Art.
- The lack of facilities in those early days
lead to a move to the Institute for Sonology, University of Utrecht(1972)
in an attempt to learn more about the creative use of the computer
-and to explore the potential visual implications and applications
of the Sonological (electronic-musicological) concepts then current
at the institute.
- Under the mentorship of the Swiss composer
Werner Kaegi, these Sonological studies eventually lead to the multi-disciplinary
"Cross Media Mapping" research project -initially involving
attempts to translate sound structures into visual (video) images.
- Started theorizing.
- Fell in love with the analogue studio,
but was forced back to the computer due to a lack of financing
required to build the necessary image synthesizer.
- Subsequently rejected sound as an unnecessary
complication and concentrated on exploring the consequences of
mapping sets of (binary) data into different graphic representation
- Also experimented with (abstract) computer
generated plotter images derived from the previous experiences
with visual translation and interpretation processes.
- This work continued until the Institute
moved to the Conservatory in the Hague
- Differences between the musical tradition
and the visual art tradition (which was increasingly rejecting
formal systems as the computer developed into a consumer product
requiring virtually no technical knowledge) made "rehabilitation"
in the "outside" world of visual art extremely difficult.
- Wasted many years wrestling with Dutch
pragmatism, looking for money in order to continunue working
and trying to propagate (conceptual) computer art.
- In 1987 the purchase of an Amiga computer
financed by half a Work-grant from the Dutch Ministry of Culture
enabled work to begin with dynamic visual image generation processes.
- In 1993 a tentative begin was made to reintroduce
sound in relation to the visual images on the Amiga.
- Started teaching Media Art at the AKI school
of Fine Art in Enschede (somewhere near the Dutch/German border)
from 1 April 1988 until 1 May 1999.
- After leaving, tried to concentrate on
produduction of personal work but the problems of presentating
work on an Amiga -due to the lack of commercial success of the system
-forced a migration to the more commonly available (open source)
- The first stand-alone Java applications
were produced in May 2002.
- Further development lead to the appearance
of the first applets in 2003 and their publication via a new
suplimentary website established August 2004.
- Now slightly infamous in some circles.
- Lives in Amsterdam, but enjoys travelling,
and is thinking of relocating.
- Has attended a number of international
conferences on computer art (education) and is interested in international
collaboration regarding the theory and practice of digital Media
Art and the cultural implications of the once new, but now somewhat
- Computer images published by:
- Deutches Bundesbahn (Ice Galerie, Frankfurt
am Main,june 1990)
- Commodore GmbH, (Promotion ORGATECH,Cologne,November
- Commodore GmbH, (Promotion CEBIT,Hannover,March
- Bau und Bodem Bank, (Annual Report,Frankfurt
am Main, 1992)
- Article "Computer, Kitsch und Moden" (translation)
Published in "Computer Art Faszination", Dr. Dotzler Medien-Institut
Computer Art, Frankfurt am Main, 1991
- Participant "Schau mir in die Augen" Videobeelden
voor Kassel Documenta Archiv, Kassel, 28 june - 6 july 1991
- Participant Computergraphik Werk-Stadt, Art
Gallery IMPRINTA 92, Dusseldorf, 19 - 25 feb 1992
- Speaker: "Rational Creativity? -Aesthetic
experiences in the medium" Symposium III -Computer Graphics and
Advertizing: A duo in Harmony, IMPRINTA 92, Dusseldorf, 24
- Participant telecommunication project "Telecosmos",
Expo America '92, National Telecommunication Commission, Buenos
Aires, 12 Oct. - 28 Dec 1992
- Work Included in
- SISEA (Groningen 1990)
- TISEA (Sydney 1992)
- ISEA (Helsinki 1994)
- ISEA (Montreal 1995)
- Participation International Fax projects in
- Edinburgh (1993),
- Glasgow (1994),
- McMinnville USA (1994),
- Sydney (1994),
- McMinnville USA (1996)
- Participant Festival "Nova Telesnost" (New
Bodies), MKC Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia, 24 - 31 Aug. 1996
- Participant reaction project "MendelSom" Kunst-Ruimte,
Kampen NL, Jan. 1997
- Participant "Performance Box Project" Antartica
Celebration Party, Cultuurwerkplaats, Eindhoven NL, 29 June 1997
- Participant International Festival of New
Film and Video Split, Croatia, 6 - 12 October 1997
- Participant Festival New Electronic Art, MKC
Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia, 10 - 15 May 1998
- Article "So What is Media Art?" Published
in "Computer Art Faszination", Dr. Dotzler Medien-Institut
Computer Art, Frankfurt am Main, 1998
- Participant 12 Stuttgarter Filmwinter, Stuttgart,
Germany, 14 - 17 Jan 1999
- Article "Media Art -Ten Years Later" A follow-up,
published in "Inter-Actief" (Jubilee Edition -January 1999),
Computer Science Student Journal, Twente University, The Netherlands.
- Participant COMTECart '99, Dresden, Germany,
11-28 Nov. 1999
- Speaker "Some Personal Remarks regarding
Independance/Autonomy" Independant Art School Conference,
Hull Time Based Arts, Hull, England, 19-20 Oct. 2000
- Speaker "Some Personal Remarks on Algorithms
and Icons" Electrohype 2000, Malmo, Sweden, 27-29 Oct 2000
- Paper "Some Personal Remarks on the Creative
Potential of Space (Towards an Einsteinian Turing Machine)"
accepted for CIRCUS conference Glasgow University 20-22 September
2001 (not presented personally for financial reasons)
- Visiting lecturer, AKI School of Fine Art,
Enschede, NL (14, 21 Feb and 7 March 2002)
- "Millifiori" presented in Media Teche programme
as part of Electrofringe 2002 Festival, October 2-7, Newcastle,
- Collaborated with Fatima Lasay in "Sound Archeology
Workshop" Ecole Cantonale d'Art du Valeis, Sierre, Switzerland
(March 26, 1, 2 April 2004)
- Participant "Readme, Runme Dorkbot Citycamp and Conference
2004" Aarhus, Denmark (August 22-28)
- Bradford Print Biennale, Bradford, England
- Group Exhibition "Digitale Beelden" Bonnefantenmuseum
Maastricht 4 may - 1 June 1986
- Group Exhibition: Galerie/Atelier E
Zurich, Zwitzerland 22 jan - 21 mar 1987
- Participant "Synthesis: Visual Arts in
the Electronic Culture" International UNESCO seminar, Offenbach/Main
FDR, 6 - 11 dec. 1987
- Part-time Lecturer in digital media, AKI,
- Participant international conference "Technoculture
in Europe", Art+Com, Council of Europe and Werkstatt Berlin,
Berlin 4 - 6 nov.1988
- Group exhibition "Art and Computers" (organized
by Cleveland Arts, GB) Touring Aberdeen, Bradford, Glasgow &
Stornoway, Feb. 1989 - jan 1990
- Participant "International Seminar on the Training
of Creators in New Technologies" UNESCO/University of Quebec in
Montreal, Montreal, Canada 12 - 16 June 1989
- Participant International Workshop "New Media-
Visual Education in Electronic Culture" Polish Association of
Art Education and Wroclaw State High School of Arts, Polanica Zdroj,
Poland 3 - 10 Sept. 1989
- Participant international conference "Technoculture
en Europe" Council of Europe and CETECH, Paris 17 - 18 nov.1989